Vol. 50, No.1 , Double Issue 2012- "The Pennsylvania Geographer"




BIG BUSINESS, SMALL TOWNS, AND THE FAMILY [WIND] FARM: SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF WIND ENERGY CONFLICT IN WESTERN NEW YORK


Christine Biermann

Department of Geography

The Ohio State University


Whitney Snyder

Communication Infrastructure Corporation

Buffalo, New York


Shane Dehn

Department of Geography

State University of New York at Geneseo


Abstract


Since the 1990s, the wind energy industry has grown rapidly in rural areas of New York State. Proposed wind farms have generated intense conflicts within communities, and opposition has in many cases undermined project success. The reasons for conflict are only partially understood and are often reduced to NIMBYism (“not in my backyard”) or planning failures. This study aims to understand how power relations influence opinions on wind farm projects in Wyoming County, a primarily agricultural and sparsely populated county in western New York. From 22 in-depth interviews with resident landowners, three themes emerged as central to wind farm conflicts: (1) micropolitics, (2) big business in small towns, and (3) agricultural landscapes and identity. These themes illustrate that wind farm conflicts are complex and multi-faceted, and that public reactions to wind farms are shaped by broader processes and

relationships both within and between places. 





GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF CHILDREN’S BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN PENNSYLVANIA COUNTIES


Robert C. Ziegenfus

and Miranda Wagner

Department of Geography

Kutztown University of Pennsylvania


Abstract


Blood lead levels have been declining across the United States as measured by national surveys. Nevertheless, there is a need to identify where elevated levels may still be present. Annual reports from the Pennsylvania Department of Health’s Lead Surveillance Program for the years 2007-2010 were used to create a dataset of the children ages 0-6 who were tested in each county of the Commonwealth. Cartographic and statistical analysis identified the geographic patterns for children tested and for children with confirmed elevated blood lead levels defined as a value of 10 µg/dL or greater. For the confirmed elevated, three specific categories of 10-14.9, 15.9, and 20 or more were investigated.





THE GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY OF THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA: A SCHOLARLY BIBLIOGRAPHY


Thomas A. Rumney, Professor Emeritus

Plattsburgh State University


The following entries represent a collection of the scholarly publications on the various aspects of the geography of Pennsylvania. While it would be probably incorrect to say that all such publications on Pennsylvania’s geography are listed below, it is certain that a very large and varied number of such publications are here. Additionally, the study of and publication about Pennsylvania’s geography is an ongoing process, and that makes the following but a current identification of what has been done. Inevitably, there will be more to add to this list in the future. The following is the first installment of a three-part bibliographic presentation, covering general topics and cultural and social geography. There will be two more sections that will follow in subsequent issues of The Pennsylvania Geographer. Section Two will deal with economic and historical geography. And, Section Three will cover physical, political, and urban geography.





VERGANGENHEITSBEWĂ„LTIGUNG, NAZISM AND SPORT: GERMAN NATIONALISM AS SEEN IN THE OLYMPICS OF 1936 AND 1972


Richard L. Wolfel

Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering

Center for Languages, Cultures and Regional Studies

United States Military Academy


Abstract


This research tracks the development of German nationalism through an analysis of the architecture and themes of two summer Olympiads hosted by Germany. These two Olympics demonstrate German national development at two different stages. The 1936 Olympics were dominated by the classically influenced monumentalism of the Nazi era, while the 1972 Olympics seek to show a progressive West German nation, one that emphasizes the alpine environment surrounding Munich as a dominant architectural theme. Recent research in nationalism and political geography has suggested that landscapes are a stage on which a nation not only proudly displays its national identity, but utilizes a popular sporting event as a method of conveying elements of the national identity to members of the nation. This concept is important throughout the world as nations compete for major sporting events, like the Olympics and the World Cup in an effort to educate both the world and their citizens in a set of desired elements of a national identity selected by the power holders of a society.




REFLECTIONS ON THE MILLERS



Robert C. Ziegenfus

Department of Geography

Kutztown University of Pennsylvania


Abstract


The 50th anniversary of The Pennsylvania Geographer is an occasion to briefly look back on the factors that prompted the creation of first the organization now known as the Pennsylvania Geographical Society and then ten years later the journal. A videotape interview of Dr. E. Willard Miller, the founder of both, served as the primary resource material. His desire to foster interaction among all Pennsylvania geographers was an abiding quest.





EMPLOYER SUPPORT FOR VANPOOLING AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES: SURVEY RESULTS FROM SOUTH CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA


Sabina E. Deitrick and Christopher Briem

University Center for Social and Urban Research

University of Pittsburgh


Abstract


Vanpooling can provide greater transportation options for longer distance commuters, particularly in rural and exurban locales, and contribute to reduced congestion and air pollution. Despite these benefits, vanpooling as a transit option has experienced only limited growth in Pennsylvania. In order to understand factors to expand vanpooling, this study conducted a survey of employers in the South Central region of the state, an area with extensive crosscounty and cross-state commuting, limited public transit, and higher than average car pool use. The research found that knowledge about vanpooling and the federal incentives and savings available to both employers and employees available under federal Transportation Demand Management (TDM) programs is extremely low. A consistent finding of predictive models of potential support for vanpool operations showed significant and positive relationship by larger sized employers whose employees commuted longer distances, with manufacturing, educational services, and health care establishments more likely

supporters.



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