Vol. 13, No. 3, November 1975 - "Geographical Perspectives on Crime and Justice"
RECENT LITERATURE ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF CRIME: REVIEW AND COMMENT
(pp. 3 - 9)
Keith D. Harries
Oklahoma State University
This article reviews some recent contributions to the spatial interpretation of crime, and offers some suggestions relating to the role of the discipline of geography in the study of crime. The review of literature is organized primarily on the basis of scale, with a dichotomy between macro (regional and interurban) and micro (intraurban) approaches. Distinct variations in topic and methodology emerge at both levels. The review begins with reference to an important recent discussion of the geography of crime, followed by some pref atory observations on crime measurement.
SOME EFFECTS OF BEING FEMALE ON CRIMINAL SPATIAL BEHAVIOR
(pp. 10 - 18)
George F. Rengert
Past research on urban crime patterns deals with data aggregated by type of crime, race and/or income level of the criminal.1 These studies demonstrate differentials concerning the propensity to commit crimes; however, they seldom contain analyses of the spatial behavior of the criminal.`' This void in the criminological literature may help to explain why there is an ongoing controversy as to whether "crime areas" should be defined by residence of criminals, the place where crimes are committed, or some combination of the two.3 In other words, criminologists do not consider criminal activity as an integrated spatial process. On the other hand, geographers, by focusing on criminal spatial behavior and by examining the spatial relations among the locations of crimes and the residences of criminals who commit them, can offer potentially significant contributions to this issue.
THE FEAR FACTOR IN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION USAGE
(pp. 19 - 22)
Irvin J. Roth and Sherry Sidhu
Chicago State University
During 1974-75 we conducted a study to determine, in a large city, the manner in which fear affected the use of public transportation. Six communities in southeastern Chicago were selected as the study area, and were chosen for two major reasons: (1) they were representative of Chicago's lower and lower-middle income population groups most dependent upon and therefore most affected by changes in public transit services, and (2) each of these areas is served by at least one of the three major modes of mass transportation, bus, subway (el) and commuter railroad. The community areas studied are: Woodlawn, Avalon Park, South Chicago, Burnside, Roseland, and Pullman (See Figure 1).
JURY SELECTION, JUSTICE, AND GEOGRAPHY
(pp. 23 - 30)
Stanley D. Brunn
Michigan State University
A series of publicized political trials involving Watergate figures, Vietnam War protesters, and political activists have brought issues of justice to the fore in the past few years. At issue are the guarantees of a representative jury, the jury selection methods, and the defense and prosecution strategies used to obtain favorable verdicts. These issues question the constitutional rights of individuals and the basis of our impartial system of justice. Much criticism of the system has focused on criminal trials where the procedures used to select jurors have included behavioral and demographic profiles of citizens in the community where the trial was held. Some social scientists and attorneys maintain that these methods manipulate or stack the jury and thereby undermine the credibility of the entire legal system.1 Others maintain such actions result in the seating of a more representative and higher quality jury.