Vol. 27, No. 3/4, Fall/Winter 1989 - "Physical Geography"


PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS OF APPALACHIAN BLOCKSHEETS

(pp. 1 – 12)


Joy Fritz

Tom Meierding

Department of Geography

University of Delaware


Abstract


Effects of the Wisconsinan cold climate of 20,000 years ago extended far south of the actual ice sheets, which, in the Appalachians, reached their southernmost limits in northern Pennsylvania and New Jersey (Figure 1). A periglacial climate belt existed near the ice front and at high altitudes farther south, resulting in accelerated mass wasting that "probably accounts for the huge boulder fields that occur along many mountain sides south of the glaciated areas" (Hunt, 1974). Other periglacial phenomena have also been described from the Appalachians, patterned ground in particular (Clark, 1968). Although there have been many individual studies on relict blocky deposits in the Appalachians (Denny, 1951, 1956; Hack, 1965; Potter and Moss, 1968; Stromquist, 1973 in Washburn 1980; Sevon, et. al., 1975; Shafer, 1988), their spatial-climatic significance has not been investigated. Extending far south from the glacial drift border in central Pennsylvania, the Appalachian Mountains provide a unique opportunity to view relict blockfields and blockslopes within a latitudinal transect, which is used here to tentatively interpret local Wisconsinan paleotemperatures




BLUFF TOE EROSION OF LAKE ERIE SHORELINE NEAR WEST SPRINGFIELD, PENNSYLVANIA

(pp. 13 – 27)


Shahalam M. Amin

Department of Geography

Kent State University


Abstract


Shore erosion in the lower Great Lakes is becoming increasingly of concern because of rapid human development of coastal areas. The problem becomes especially alarming where the shorelines are cut into relatively weak sediments. About 40 percent of the shoreline of the "lower" Great Lakes in the United States and roughly one-third in Ontario, Canada, is formed in relatively weak Quaternary glacial, glacio-fluvial and glacio-lacustrine sediments. These shorelines are characterized by narrow beaches of mixed sand and gravel, steep nearshore profiles, and bluffs ranging from 2 m to over 30 m in height. Rates of bluff recession are often greater than 0.5 m per year and locally may exceed 1.5 m per year. Short-term erosion rates tend to be highly variable both temporally and spatially, particularly in areas of high bluffs and complex stratigraphy. Recession rates may also be influenced strongly by lake level fluctuations, with higher erosion rates usually occurring during periods of high lake levels.




SOUTH JERSEY WATER SCARCITY, DEMAND AND SUPPLY ASPECTS

(pp. 28 – 44)


George Blyn

Rutgers University

Camden, New Jersey


Abstract


South Jersey's water resource presents a seeming paradox of scarcity in the midst of abundance. Attributes indicating abundance are examined below, followed by the nature of present scarcity. Additional supply alternatives currently under consideration by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection through the engineering firm of Camp, Dresser and McKee (CDM) are reviewed, and demand aspects of the problem are raised.




THE USE OF A MONITORING WELL NETWORK FOR DROUGHT MANAGEMENT IN THE CHRISTINA RIVER BASIN

(pp. 45 – 51)


Karenann Voytas

Department of Geography

Kutztown University


Abstract


The number of new factors impacting water supplies, ranging from urbanization to possible world climatic changes as a result of the Greenhouse Effect, is constantly increasing. As it does, the necessity of monitoring water resources and managing shortages also increases. The constantly rising demand on formerly rural water supplies, and the crucial dependency of numerous and highly various commercial and private consumers creating that demand, make it imperative for water resource managers to have the ability to accurately predict drought in order to deal with water shortages in a timely and effective manner.




THE WEEKLY WEATHER AND CROP BULLETIN: A RESOURCE FOR TEACHERS

(pp. 52 – 62)


Dodson, Russell L.

Department of Geography

Mansfield University


Abstract


The Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin is a federal government publication that contains a wealth of useful information. Always included in this pamphlet are: national maps of precipitation, average temperatures, and temperature departures from normal for the week; tables of selected weather data for certain cities; and, summaries of weather and agricultural conditions for most states, for the nation as a whole, and for many countries. Information that is printed seasonally includes: data on cooling heating, and growing degree days; maps of extreme temperatures for the week (minimum in winter, maximum in summer); pan evaporation amounts; and, maps of moisture content in the soil profile.




PENNSYLVANIA TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC SURVEY MATERIALS OF INTEREST TO GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS

(pp. 63 – 73)


James Shaulis

Pennsylvania Topographic & Geologic Survey

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania


Abstract


Attention geographers. Just like Marco Polo, Magellan, Balboa, and Ponce de Leon, you, too, can discover a fascinating New World and be wealthier for it. That "New World" is more precisely the "world of geographic information" available in the many publications of the Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey which is part of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Since its formation in 1836, this Bureau, informally called the Pennsylvania Geologic Survey, has been involved in investigating, interpreting, and describing the geology of Pennsylvania. Primarily through its published geologic reports and maps, the Survey has made this information available to the public.



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