Vol. 5, No. 4, November 1967 - "Earth Science"




(pp. 1 - 4)


Dr. John F. Lounsbury; Head, Department of Geography and Geology

Eastern Michigan University




During the last ten years there has been a spectacular growth and interest in earth science courses and programs at the pre-college and college level. Physical geography, geology, or physiography were common courses in the high schools until about the turn of the century, but as rapid advances took place in biology, chemistry, and physics, courses concerning the physical environment were deleted from the curricula of many high schools. The decline continued and by 1950, less than one per cent of the high school students were taking courses in physical geography, general geology or physiography. Since that time, however, a rejuvenation of sciences concerned with the physical aspects of the earth has been experienced.





(pp. 4 - 10)


Paul A. Prince

Indiana University of Pennsylvania




Permafrost, or perennially frozen ground, underlies twenty per cent of the world's land area, being widespread in North America, Eurasia, and Antarctica. In the Northern Hemisphere, permafrost occurs mainly in Canada and the Soviet Union, each country having roughly about one-half of the total land area underlain by it. Very little is known about the extent of permafrost in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been reported locally in some of the higher mountains, especially the Southern Andes of South America. Figure 1. Indeed, Permafrost is a widespread phenomenon; its importance and ramifications are rapidly becoming better known and more clearly understood; it not only poses questions of great geophysical interest, but presents the civil engineer with many exceedingly difficult problems.





(pp. 11 - 14)


John A. Enman, Lavere W. McClure, & James R. Lauffer

Bloomsburg State College




Since there appeared to be the requirement for motion pictures better tailored to classroom use than commercial films, the geography department at Bloomsburg State College, Pennsylvania has begun the production of its own. Because the writers are amateurs in the art of such photography, it is believed their experiences and results might serve  to encourage others at all levels of teaching.





(pp. 15 - 20)


Dr. Robert Holz; Department of Geography

University of Texas




Ability to understand and use the map scale is one of the basic skills that must be developed by students. Although there are countless opportunities for building and reinforcing this skill in the classroom, the teacher may not feel the need to employ them. This is, in part, true because the rather complex concept represented by map scale is disarmingly simple in appearance. For the teacher who may not appreciate

the application of the map scale concept, this article will:

1. Define map scale,

2. Show how scale is expressed onmaps,

3. Treat the conversion of map scale,

4. Correlate area and scale,

5. Compare large- and small-scale maps.

Before these five points individually are considered, the problem of selection of a map with the appropriate scale should be discussed.





(pp. 20 - 23)


Dr. William F. Plankenhorn

Mansfield State College




"Tornado Warning" undefined these wordshave an ominous sound to millions of people in the United States. They can feel the terror that lies beneath every human activity as people prepare to meet the onslaught of tornadic winds, violent storms with structural damage and with the loss of life. The accompanying fear is a very personal one. One knows that his home can be destroyed and even his loved ones killed in a matter

of seconds. If the funnel should come one's way, there is no escaping it without prior provision. Fortunately, however, tornadoes are erratic. Their exact direction in an immediate area cannot be predetermined.





The Pennsylvania Geographical Society exists to promote effective geographic teaching, research, and literacy.

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