Vol. 4, No. 1, April 1966 - "Education"

 

 

MACKINDER AND HIS HEARTLAND THEORY: FIFTY YEARS LATER

 

Richard Lee Reinhart

Meadville Area Senior High School

 

Abstract

 

Halford J. Mackinder read a paper before the Royal Geographic Society of London in 1904 entitled "The Geographical Pivot of History". Ever since, geographers have discussed and debated the ideas it presented. Mackindder analyzed the relationship between the political and geographical distribution of the world and correlated them with political dominence. With his eveluation he attempted to predict the future course of history. At first glance, he seems to have presented a sound and logical argument, but upon closer examination his generalizations and simplifications show flaws.

 

 

 

STRUCTURES RELATED TO SERVICES OF CITIES

 

Pamela Ford

Carroll Junior High School

 

Abstract

 

One of the most dynamic aspects of the United States today is the rapid growth of urbanization. This growth has been rapidly building momentum in recent years and shows no indication of slowing in the forseeable future. Presently over 70% of our population can be classified as urban and the figure may well reach 90% by the end of the century. New forms of urbanization are bringing startling changes to American landscape: sprawling suburbs, strip cities, dormitory towns, ribbon urban developments along highways, and others. With these developments, however, have come new problems, to be added to old ones associated with urban life.

 

 

 

RIVERS TODAY

 

Debbie Brown

Meadville Area Senior High School

 

Abstract

 

To show the importance of a river in the three general periods of its life cycle, and to compare these periods in their service of the nine main utilization functions of a river is the purpose of Rivers Today. Before such a comparison can be made, however, a clear definition of the life history of a stream and its nine general use functions should be made.

 

 

 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EWING-DONN THEORY

 

Patricia Roderer

Stetson Junior High School

 

"The era in which earth's surface is covered with ice or glaciers", according to Webster, is an ice age. Today the ice and glaciers exist, but are they coming or going? Because of a definite rise in world temperature (e.g. Spitzbergen's average temperature has risen ten degrees in the last fifty years) over a period of a hundred years most glaciers have been shrinking; and at the present rate of the temperature increase, within forty years the arctic ocean will be used for shipping. Many scientists predict that the earth is returning to the warm, wet climate of a million years ago. It is possible, but two American scientists, Maurice Ewing and William L. Donn have proposed a theory which theorizes a warming climate as the primary cause of an ice age.

 

 

 

THE SEVEN SEAS

 

Jean Feagin

Youngwood Junior High School

 

Abstracts

 

The world's seas are one of the earth's last great frontiers. Water covers over 70 per cent of the surface area of our planet. Its waters move in regular rhythms - the tides, and in "rivers" - the currents. In its waters are found many dissolved minerals and chemical elements. Strange - and not-so-strange - creatures inhabit its seas.

 

Today the oceans are a constant source of wonder, ever reealing new secrets, and new possibilities. Someday we may extract the minerals from the oceans - perhaps even live in them!

 

Great, indeed, are the "seven seas" and their resources for mankind.

 

 

 

SOMETHING MUST BE DONE

 

Marilyn Maerker

Stetson Junior High School

 

Abstract

 

Today, with all the space vessels and talk of new land vehicles, what use do we have for "old fashioned" water transportation? Space flights are headline news, but when a ship sails on her maiden voyage, it slips by practically unnoticed. So much emphasis is being put on space travel that the public is uninformed of ocean shipping news. You may have seen some pictures of the new nuclear ships, but the bulk of the goods are actually carried by old tubs.

 

 

 

RUNAWAY WORLD

 

Joanne Hill

Stetson Junior High School

 

Abstract

 

One of the problems of the world today that will increase fantastically in tempo each year is the boom in population. Once it took sixteen centuries for the earth's population to double; now it happens in less than one-half century. Although the rapid growth in population is mostly concentrated in Asia, we are also adding the equivalent in population numbers of another Philadelphia to our country each year. What will happen to these additional inhabitants? Can we possibly supply their every need?

 

 

 

THE MAKING OF A GEOGRAPHY PROJECT

 

David B. Louden

Carroll Junior High School

 

Abstract

 

In making a geography project, one cannot put together a few ideas on paper, paste them on a piece of cardboard and them say that this is the project. When material like this appears from a student, be assured that he does not know the essentials of a good geography project.

 

 

 

PROJECT MOTION PICTURE

 

Ken Leister, State Coordinator of The Pennsylvania Junior Geographers

Stetson Junior High School

 

Abstract

 

The article that follows is an account or description of a project completely planned and manned by the writer's Junior Geography Club, at Stetson Junior High School, West Chester, Pennsylvania. The project is discussed in great detail to enable the reader to follow the planning and set up a similar project within the framework of an individual school schedule.

 

 

 

THE TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF GUATEMALA, CENTRAL AMERICA

 

Jose Lopez Toledo, Chairman, Office of Geographic Studies

Ministry of Public Works, Guatemala City, Guatemala C.A.

 

Abstract

 

In the country of Guatemala, Central America, the teaching of geography constitutes an important factor in the cultural development of the Guatemalan student. This concept was recently emphasizedby the National Government when it issued Federal Order Number 153 in October of 1963. The decree established a geography curriculum for grades one through nine.


The Pennsylvania Geographical Society exists to promote effective geographic teaching, research, and literacy.


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